During the study of the events that preceded the tragedy of May 2nd, 2014, it was established that the liquidation of the tent camp on the Kulikovo field was pre-planned by representatives of the authorities and agreed with the individual leaders of the warring forces – “Antimaydan” and “Euromaidan” groups.
According to the original secret plan, the demolition of the tents had to take his hands out of gangs of football fans “ultras” after the end of a football match “Chernomorets” – “Metalist” in the late evening May 2, 2014. The police officers had to detain and isolate activists Antimaydana, avoiding excessive use of force.
Liquidation of the tent camp in this way the interests of all parties and should pass without casualties. Capturing the House of Trade Unions, as well as the fierce resistance during liquidation, according to the plan were not provided.
However, due to the disagreement of the leaders of the groups’ Kulikova field, “the plan was foiled. For half an hour before the match it was provoked riots in the city center. The bloodshed, which lasted for three hours, resulted in numerous casualties and completely upset the original plans. As a result, instead of the relatively bloodless dismantling the tent camp on the field of Kulikovo the violent clashes began, which were accompanied by a shooting, assault and arson of the House of Trade Unions, which was about four hundred men, 42 of whom died.
To understand and reflect Odessa tragedy of the second of May, one need to know the background of the events and some citizens’ mentality specialities.
We cannot see the overall picture of the happening without understanding the context, to grasp the motivation of the participants and the reasons of actions and events.
Odessa was permanently created as a seaport and multinational merchants’ city. people here appreciated and still appreciate the ability to negotiate and to succeed in finding compromises.
Even cheating a contractor or a partner is considered as a valid way of behaviour – especially if the fraud occurred within the established rules, traditions and laws. However, violence in Odessa is not a valid way to solve conflicts and considered the lot of marginal (“tramps”).
The party resorted to unprovoked, unjustified and unmotivated violence, and even more so to a murder becomes undesirable in all segments of society, from the authorities to the criminal environment.
Illustrative examples can be found in local literature. Specific skills of well-known Ostap Bender, who knew four “relatively honest ways of obtaining money” – quite an “Odessa phenomenon “. Another striking example of the negative attitude of the Odessa society to criminal violence can be found in u “Odessa Tales” by Isaak Babel, in particular, in the story “How it was done in Odessa.”
Before the Red revolution in Odessa violence manifested in the form of massacres during the ethnic and religious conflicts. The biggest pogrom that took place in October 1905, was inspired by the royal security forces, who used religious and economic differences between Jews and Christians, especially Greeks, to counter the revolution. Then, during the riots, more than 400 people were killed.
In January 1918, there was an uprising of the Bolsheviks in Odessa who proclaimed “Odessa Soviet Republic.” At that time city streets become a battle scene between the White Guard troops and Ukrainian Central Rada on the one hand and the Bolsheviks, and the sailors of the Black Sea Fleet on the other. During three days of fighting 119 people were killed. All of them were buried in a mass grave at the Kulikovo field.
The Soviet period in the history of the city was marked by so-called “red terror” in Odessa Cheka* and the “white terror” of Denikin’s counterintelligence. However, those events also had “Odessa specific touch.” Thus, the head GubChK (province Cheka office) Deitch in 1920 issued an order: “I have noticed that employees OGCHK (Odessa Cheka office) often intercede for the prisoners. I remind you that these phenomena are unacceptable and employees applying for any arrested will hold responsibility for their actions “. Prominent Bolshevik Sophia Sokolovskaya characterized the revolutionary atmosphere of Odessa in 1919: “… Revolution in Odessa does not move for a step without money.”
During World War II German and Romanian invaders destroyed tens of thousands of residents, primarily Jews and Communists.
In the years of independence of Ukraine Odessa remained tolerant multi-ethnic Russian-speaking city. City council sessions conducted in Russian, Russian-language TV station worked, radio stations, the majority of local newspapers and magazines were published in Russian language.
Street confrontation occurred in 2007 with the restoration of the monument in the center of the “founders of Odessa.” A key figure of the monument – Empress Catherine II, who at the end of the XVIII century eliminated the remains of Ukrainian autonomy, destroyed the Sich** and legally established serfdom in Ukraine. At the same time, the Empress has signed a decree on the construction of the city and the port, while it gets into the economic development of the Black Sea areas. The figure of Catherine II is a stumbling block between the supporters of different views on the history of Odessa in particular and the country in general.
Restoration of the monument was accompanied by protests and violent opposition, a number of participants in the collision were injured of varying severity.
There were street clashes in 2007 occurred in the city centre and the reason was restauration of the monument to Empress Ekaterina II, city founder, who eliminated the remains of Ukrainian autonomy, destroyed the Sich** and legally established serfdom in Ukraine in the end of the XVIII century.
At the same time, the Empress has signed a decree concerning the construction of the city and the seaport, which leads to the economic development of the Black Sea areas. The figure of Catherine II is a stumbling block between the supporters of different views on the history of Odessa in particular and the country in general.
Restoration of the monument was accompanied by protests and violent counteraction, a number of participants were injured in the collision.
MAIDAN EVENTS AND ODESSA
Odessa events that occurred in January-May 2014, cannot be considered in isolation from the situation in Kiev and other Ukrainian cities.
The protests in Kiev also known as “Euromaidan” have begun as a peaceful rally. After the tents at the Independence Square in the capital appeared, European integration supporters also constructed their own tent camp in November, the 22nd, 2014. This actions angered local authorities that sought to demonstrate pubic order and loyalty to the central government.
City government, hiding behind the questionable adjudication, organized the tent camp dispersal on 25th of November, 2013, which was performed by police and utility workers. During this dispersal three activists were detained. Unjustified use of force against peaceful protesters caused hostility both from the side of “Euromaidan” supporters and from the side of their political opponents that had been working side by side during so-called “General protest”. In particular, political counsil of the “Rodina” party made a statement condemning the ban of rallies and the use of force to disperse the tent camp.
Maidan events transformed from a peaceful protest into a violent confrontation with the authorities later. These developments were reflected in Odessa: there began a series of night arsons of the cars belonging to supporters of European integration, as well as vehicles with car license plates from western regions of Ukraine. There were also local smaller clashes observed between opposite sides of the political situation, associated strongly with blocking and unblocking local military units of the “Berkut” riot police and the internal troops.
Late in January a number of Western regions of Ukraine experienced seizures of regional administration buildings. There were rumors wide spreading around Odessa about the possible upcoming “State administration Storming” by “Euromaidan” supporters who, according to those rumors, arrived in Odessa. On 25th of January the head of Regional Administration Nikolai Skorik publicly asked Odesa citizens to come to the building of administration so they could become a “human shield” which would protect from “alien, strange thugs and militants” who supposedly going to “capture the city”.
After calling citizens to go to the area to protect Regional Administration Office, Nikolay Skorik acknowledged the inability of law enforcement agencies to maintain public order and violated the state monopoly on the use of force that has become a link in the chain of events that eventually led to the tragedy on 2nd of May.
The entrances to the Regional Administration Office were barricaded with concrete blocks as well as windows were closed with shields; regional administration office and the City council were guarded by unidentified civilians wearing masks. There were calls to organize “self-defense” units in order to protect city and region administrations offices, instead of defending private property of citizens. Along with this, participants of these groups stated that they don’t defend current regime of Victor Yanukovich, but find it unacceptable to overthrow regime with forces; such practice, in their opinion, could lead to unpredictable consequences.
The next step in the escalation of events began on February 19th in front of the Regional Administration office, where civilians have been victims of attack by a well-organized group of several hundred unidentified people. Then “Euromaidan” activists, journalists and “Youth Unity” members were attacked by people beating them with sticks and clubs.
It is obvious that the attack was organized by at least the connivance, but rather – with the direct assistance of the government and there were many signs to prove it. The investigation of these events has been going on for more than eight months.
As a result of these events held on 19th of February, 2014 the inhabitants of Odessa received an unambiguous signal that the government law enforcement agencies will not (because of disability or because of lack of motivation) to ensure the security of citizens.
A logical consequence the events of 19th of February was that organized, specially trained and equipped groups from opposite sides started to speeding up their creation.
Thus, on 21st of February the creation of ” Odessa Euromaidan Self-defense ” was announced and their main task was to ensure the safety of Euromaidan supporters and their mass actions. “Self-defense” was equipped with shields, helmets, bullet-proof vests and sticks and applied tactics of militias riot.
Similar structures have been formed by activists of “Antimaidan.” Thus, on 23rd of February, a call for volunteers was announced which was planned to conduct training on the basis of “Odessa squads.” In addition, “Youth unity” organization initiated the creation of another organization – the “people’s militia”, which soon gained legal status of public formation of policing.
Thus, groups that were originally created to predict any attempts to force the resolving of political conflicts in the city, were organized by the end of February. “Pacifism”, as a unwillingness to use force which is a bright characteristic for management style in Odessa police, was another another important factor in the chain of events. The reasons for such peaceful attitude lay not only in city mentality specifications that were mentioned above, but also in the fact that the police is the part of public and commercial environment of the city, and police leadership is not interested in worsening relations with anyone or aggravation of any sort of “sharp” situation, if it is not accompanied by direct political, administrative or financial dividends.
ODESSA AND “NOVOROSSIYA OPERATION”
All further events in the city went on at the background of so-called “Russian spring”, or “Novorossiya” operation, during which Crimea was included into Russian Federation. There were strikes, marshes and other mass actions including captures of administrational offices, were going on in some southern and eastern regions of Ukraine at that time. The participants of these actions demanded change of the administrative and territorial structure of the country. Already in the end of February activists of both opposite sides, “Euromaidan” and “Kulikovo Field” coordinated their actions of local importance through the “General protest” organisation. On 27th of February 2014 they held a joint picketing of the city executive committee demanding the re-election of its members. The rally happened without any accidents. On 28th of February representatives of “Euromaidan” and “Kulikovo Field” transferred their demands to Odessa city council. Requirements were related to a budget transparency, accountability of the local government to the city and the abortion of few decisions related to municipal property.
Though in March situation changed drastically. 1st of March was the day when Pavel Gubarev was elected as a “people’s governor” in Donetsk. Russian flags were raised above administration offices of Donetsk, Dneporpetrovsk and Kharkov. Meanwhile in Odessa, “people’s meeting” of few thousands participants happened at Kulikovo Field. Their official position was to hold referendum and to demand federalisation within Ukraine. Though one could hear such slogans as “Odessa autonomy” and “Novorossiya” at this meeting. At the background of situation in Crimea it was regarded as an evidence of the real target of “Russian spring” is to violate territorial integrity of Ukraine, to implement separatism in the country.
On the second of March the largest rally which supported the unity of Ukraine, held. Participants protested against possible repetition of “Crimean scenario” in Odessa. The demonstration ended right in front of the General Consulate of the Russian Federation and was attended by about seven thousand people in total.
On 3rd of March 2014, representatives of “People’s Militia of Donbass” broke into Donetsk Regional State administration, they were leaded by Pavel Gubarev. Their demands were to sop recognizing authority of Kiev and declaration of governor’s elections and the referendum on 30th of March concerning federal structure of Ukraine. Same day, near the Odessa Regional State Office which hosted the session of Odessa Regional Council, there gathered around 1000 activists of “Kulikovo Field”. Protesters removed Ukrainian state flag from the flagpole in front of the building and raised Russian state flag. A young man who was trying to take away Ukrainian flag, was severely beaten. Youth unity” organization leader Anton Davidchenko entered the courtroom and demanded to let the protesters in. Deputy Alexei Albu offered to initiate a referendum concerning the “special status of Odessa region”.
By 4pm that day there have gathered about two thousands of pro-Ukrainian activists around the building of Regional Administration Office. They demanded in ultimatum form to return the state flag of Ukraine. The opposite parties were divided by the police cordon. After long negotiations, the activists of “Kulikovo Field” agreed to take down Russian flag and to raise Ukrainian state flag. Vladimir Nemirovsky was appointed as a new head of Regional administration later that day. Also leadership of the regional police, Security Service and Prosecutor’s Office were changed. Anton Davidchenko was detained by the SBU officers on the 17th of March and put in jail on suspicion of separatism. The new leader of “Youth Unity” was now his brother Artem Davidchenko.
Throughout March and April in Odessa there were mass rallies and demonstrations of activists on both sides happening very week. Unlike other regions where such actions were accompanied by clashes and even murders (for example, on March 13 in Kharkov, Donetsk, March 14), the rallies in Odessa were relatively peaceful. Euromaidan’s “Self-defense” and “Kulikovo Fields Militia” were the most disciplined units of the opposing groups and cooperated with police in order to provide order during any mass actions. To be able to cooperate, they usually coordinated their actions by tacit agreement. They also carried out joint public events such as cleaning Park Shevchenko on 22nd of March 2014.
The main task of these units was to prevent aggression and to neutralise ecstatic, too radical and inadequate activists of their part during mass rallies. Many thousands of people were going out to participate in numerous meetings and marches, but most of them were peaceful, without any excesses and collisions. There were some critical moments of course. 30th of March, “Odessa squad” and “Self-defense” stopped the clashes between “the Right Sector” and unorganized supporters of “Kulikovo Field” near the monument to Duke*** at the Primorsky Boulevard***. There were also clashes on 10th of April near “Promenada” hotel where Oleg Tsaryov , central parliament deputy, was staying at that time. According to both parties, it was provoked from the outside and took place in the presence of police officers. And in these, and other, less resonant cases conflicts ended without violence. Contacts between the Euromaidan “Self-Defense ” and “Kulikovo field” supporters persisted until the evening of the 1st of May, when at “Maevka” (traditional Labour Day BBQ) organized by “Odessa squads”, was attended by several representatives of “self-defense” with the families. On 13th of February 2014, Ukrainian football fan clubs of premier league teams announced am indefinite ceasefire in order to “united fight against the lawlessness, lies and propaganda”, supporting Euromaidan. Premier league matches were accompanied by united “March for the Unity of Ukraine” where fans of two football team participated. Also, football fans, called “Ultras” in Ukraine, were noticed in clashes with pro-Russian activists on 23rd of April in Mariupol ad 27th of April in Kharkov.
THE CHECPOINTS AT THE ENTRANCES OF ODESSA
On April, the 7th, Antiterrorist operation was announced in Ukraine and soon grew full-scale army conflict in regions of Donetsk and Lugansk. Tanks, heavy artillery and aviation were involved. Refugees flee into Odessa region.
April 14th: local volunteers and Euromaidan activists from other regions, started to organize checkpoints and roadblocks at the entrances in Odessa city. Checkpoints were places exactly next to police traffic checkpoints at the entrances to Odessa and at the key intersections of the Odessa region. The total number people controlling such checkpoints was 300.
It was declared that only armed civilians will protect the checkpoints and their function will be to prevent possible invasion particularly from Transnistria****. In fact they were not intended for military matters but for the following reasons:
– To make it difficult to deliver participants of mass actions in Odessa for the opponents of Euromaidan from outside the city.
– Ensure a permanent presence of civilians near the traffic police posts in order to prevent corruption;
-To retain Euromaidan activist from Kiev who arrived in Odessa at the border of town in order to avoid excesses and complications of the citations in the city.
Emergence of roadblocks caused discontent in Odessa police as well as among the inhabitants of the region. Uncertain legal status of volunteers, a large number of people from other areas that control Odessa region, vividly demonstrated political views of volunteers at checkpoints and difficulty for vehicles to pass them through, all those factors became the reasons of domestic conflicts and deliberate provocation of opponents. The head of regional police Pyotr Lutsyuk at the session of regional council on 24th of Aplir, reported that checkpoints are destabilizing. In response to that governor Nemirovsky said that checkpoints are necessary in order to control actions of the police.
Early morning, 25th of April a checkpoint at the intersection of bypass roads and highway to Ovidiopol, exploded. Investigative team found out that there was a grenade RGD-5. Seven people, including one police officer were injured. The reason of explosion still remained unidentified. According to the volunteers who controlled that checkpoint a grenade had been thrown from a passing vehicle. Antimaidan representatives denied any involvement and spoke about possible rough handling of self-made devices at the checkpoint.
People injured in the explosion were taken to city hospitals. According to doctors, the incident became a sort of “exercise” for the municipal medical institutions and allowed to prepare a flood of wounded people that started to arrive during mass clashes on 2nd of May. The official investigation failed to identify those who prepared the accident.
At the end of April, 2014 the head of National Security Council and the commandant of Kiev “Euromaidan” Andrew Paruby visited several regions of Ukraine. In particular, he went to Dnipropetrovsk on 25th of April and came to Odessa on 29th of April, later he went to Mykolaiv region (the 1st of May). According to media report he inspected road checkpoints and gave bulletproof vests to Euromaidan activists during those visits. According to the insider’s information, there was also a discussion of checkpoints functioning termination during this visit.
Euromaidan supporters got united around few coordination centers the most famous of which was the headquarters of the “Public Security Council” organisation located at Zhukovskogo street, building number 36. In this organisation people organized support and maintenance of checkpoints, collecting material support for “self-defense”, the army, the refugees, signed up pro-Ukrainian activists who were ready to respond in case of complication of the situation in the city. By early May in SMS distribution there were about a thousand and a half of phone numbers.
There were also databases of Kulikovo Field supporters. According to them, only “Odessa squad” had around 5 thousand telephone numbers of supporters.
WITHDRAW OF THE TENT CALM AT KULIKOVO FIELD
Antimaidan tent camp was founded next to the Regional administration office at Shevchenko avenue on the 26th of January 2014. Within one month the tent calm moved to Kulikovo Field which is situated in the central part of Odessa next to central train station and is a traditional place for military parades and other official events.
The tent camp was an organisation centre of the protest. There were rallies held here, as well as campaign materials were distributing from there, money was collected and carried out the list of supporters. Note that the supporters of European integration had not had a permanent camp but every evening they had meetings at Primorsky Boulevard, near the monument to Duke de Richelieu.
By mid-April the tent city had lost its organizing role and have more of a symbolic value. Funding has declined sharply, the daily cost of maintaining the camps were about 3-5 thousand UAH (200-300 euros) and were not compensated by the donations of supporters. Reviewing the question of decommissioning, which however would be an obvious fiasco for the leaders of the movement.
The most important accelerator for the events of 2nd of May was a political decision to release Kulikovo Field. At a meeting with activists of the pro-Ukrainian organizations which took place in early April the head of the regional state administration Vladimir Nemirovsky said: “We will make a decision about the tent camp at Kulikovo Field. We will try to do everything for good first. 9th of May parade will be definitely there. ”
Statements about the need of withdrawal of the tent camp started to become regular in speeches of Euromaidan supporters. On the 9th of April people started to build barricades from sandbags and wooden pallets around the tent camp. Those had however more symbolic character and could not be estimated as serious fortification constructions in case if situation gets complicated.
The leadership of Odessa believed that the power scenario is fraught with uncontrolled catastrophic consequences. Police authorities were looking for a compromise solution and negotiated about the tent camp in “Odessa style” which means to take into account positions of all involved parties including financial incentives of the protest’s leaders.
According to available information peaceful process of tent camp withdrawing was funded by one of the candidates to the position of city mayor Gennady Truhanov, who was interested in saving peace in Odessa and demonstration of accountability of the situation to the municipal authorities right before the elections. Higher police leadership of Odessa including the deputy chief of the Ministry of Internal Dmitry Fuchedzhi performed all technical tasks.
Colonel Fuchedzhi worked over thirty-seven years in various departments in regional department of the Ministry of Internal, last 15 years of those he worked in Odessa. According to the tasks that were usual for him he was very familiar with the situation in the city and has been in contact with leaders of various groups and organizations, he also could function as an intermediary between such groups in resolving delicate issues. Also Dmitry Fuchedzhi had previous experience in withdrawing of tent camps. Thus, in April 2005 there was a camp side of Victor Yanukovych supporters at Primorsky Boulevard which was taken down. In august 2006 he participated in taking down the tent camp of communists who protested against demolition of the monument to Lenin at Kulikovo Field.
During those actions the protesters’ belongings were destroyed by “unknown opponents”, the police only “protected order”, suppressing attempts of resistance and excessive use of any force by all involved parties. The same scenario was used to take down “Euromaidan” tent camp next to the monument of Duke in November 2013. In all those cases the “unknown individuals” have not been identified and a proper legal assessment of the police officers’ actions was not provided.
There is a good reason to believe that the act of taking down the tent camp at Kulikovo Field was first planned and according to this plan a site should be taken down by the hands of football fans “ultras” in the late evening on the 2nd of May after the football game “Chernomorets” – “Metallist”. Objectively this options would suit all parties. The regional government has cleared the area for the parade on 9th of May. Police authorities eliminated the need to arrange illegal act of withdrawal with the help of their subordinates. Tension elimination in the city center was in the interest of Euromaidan; and the leaders of Antimaidan would have a chance to get rid of the obsolete tent camo and received a picture of acceleration which promised them political dividends.
“Odessa squads” commanders and other leaders of the Antimaidan protest groups did not support these messages and did not declare their gathering as well as did not take any other actions to protect the tent camp from possible violent demolition. On the morning of 2nd of May , at a personal Facebook page of lawyer Anna Usatenko, Kulikovo Field activist, a lengthy message appeared in which she explained the reasons of the split in Antimaidan group. According to her view, de facto leader Artem Davidchenko was not engaged in real political fights and “pretended to-do-so” , guided by ambitions and financial considerations. The message ended with the words: “Today we are entering a confrontation with the ultras and for the sake of the protection of ordinary citizens – and in this case we are not going to help you to pretend.”
Supposedly that in the evening of the 2nd of May in the area of tent camp there will be minimum of people, not more than few dozens. Police had previously surrounded the area and isolated the inhabitants of the tent camp in order to keep the situation under control and to avoid excessive violence and bloodshed.
To simplify the problem, it was decided to remove the most efficient activists from the area. According to numerous witnesses of direct participants in the events of the last days of April, leaders of Kulikovo Field received 600 thousand hryvnia (about 50 thousand dollars) as transfer. Some of the money was redirected to a legal support of Anton Davidchenko who was under arrest at that time.
“Odessa squads” leaders received 35 thousand USD for the relocation of tent camp to the Memorial of 411 coastal Battery battery (ten kilometers from the Kulikovo field) where according to the agreements with the city 2 hectares of the green area was separated for the future tent camp). The received funds allowed to finance the relocation of the camp and its further functioning. Money transfer has happened under the mediation of the local police chief Peter Lutsyuk and his deputy Dmitry Fuchedzhi. According to available information, “people’s squad” had received a similar proposal, but refused to leave the area.
“Odessa squads” tents were brought to the square on May, the 1st. traditional demonstration took place at that day and was attended by communists, the activists of organization “Borotba”, anarchists and supporters of “Kulikovo field.” The action was attended by about one thousand people, the demonstration ended at Kulikovo field without any incidents.
According to the activists of the “Self-Defense” who were at the picnic that day at the memorial of 411 Battery hosted by their opponents. the “Odessa squad”. They were making plans for the summer season and particularly wanted to organize a children summer military camps, to be involved into important social projects including projects initiated by opponent. A few days before the 2nd of May, on behalf of the “Odessa squads” there appeared calls in social media to gather at 13:30 at the Alexandrovskiy Avenue –near the site of the beginning of the joint march of the fans and supporters of united Ukraine which in these messages has been called “the march of fascists.”
Lawyer Anna Usatenko has been an active participant in the movement. She provided legal assistance to activists including “mobile group of Kulikovo Field” which moved on a white minibus r.n. AN6852EO. Participants of the mobile group were trained and armed activists whose task was to protect the leaders of the movement. During the incident at the checkpoint on the highway to Ovidiopol which occurred on 24th of April , Vitaly Bud’ko, known under the pseudonym “boatswain” was the driver of the minibus.
In the morning of the 2nd of May there came special train in Odessa carried football fans from Kharkov and other cities. Likewise, to other games “Chernomorets” football fans were transported from the smaller towns around Odessa including town of Kotovsk. Also a group of Euromaidan activists were heading to the city from other regions of Ukraine (Nikolaev, Kherson, Vinnitsa, Rivne), who were to arrive on the afternoon of May the 2nd. “The March of the Unity of Ukraine” with football fans of two premier league teams and pro-Ukrainian activists was appointed to 3pm. On the 2nd of May about 1pm “Odessa squads” and Antimaidan supporters started to gather at the Alexandrovskiy Avenue with the clear intention to prevent the
A detailed chronology of further events was published by “2nd of May Group» on June, the 26th , 2014 and is available here:http://2maygroup.blogspot.com/p/blog-page_8417.html
and here http://2maygroup.blogspot.com/p/2.html
Under the terms “Antimaidan” and “Kulikovo Field” we mean organizations and individuals who share the idea of federalization of Ukraine and / or the creation on its territory as an independent public entities and / or changes of the external borders of the state, and support the actions of activists of the tent camp, which was located on the area of Kulikovo field in Odessa in February-April 2014. The term “Euromaidan” the authors refer to organizations and individuals who are supporters of a unitary system and / or the European integration of Ukraine and / or maintain the external borders of the state unchanged and support the actions of the activists – participants of mass protests (“Maidan”) 2013-2014 years in Kiev and Odessa. Under the term “ultras” authors indicate the informal group of the most active football fans.
These terms are used only to refer to the parties in conflict and do not imply any evaluation and performance. The text of the document can be freely used in commercial and non-commercial use only fully intact while maintaining authorship without making it any unauthorized changes, cuts or additions.
The text can be found at the link http://2maygroup.blogspot.com/2014/10/2_22.html
Notes of translator
*All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution, Speculation, and Sabotage also knows as the Cheka
** was a semi-autonomous Cossacks‘ polity in the 16th-18th centuries centered in the region around today’s Kakhovka Reservoir spanning across the lower Dnieper river. (sourse: vikipedia)
*** Duke of Richelieu, monument to the first mayor of Odessa, the main symbol of Odessa, stands in the beginning of the famous Primorsky Boulevard, promenade street along the seaport with a view to Odessa harbor.
****Transnistria – Prednistrovian Moldovian Republic is a partially recognised state located mostly on a strip of land between the river Dniester, borders with Odessa region.